Evaluation of toxicity, mutagenicity, metabolism and formation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in irradiated ground beef

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dc.contributor.author Gadgil, Priyadarshini
dc.date.accessioned 2006-08-01T20:18:02Z
dc.date.available 2006-08-01T20:18:02Z
dc.date.issued 2006-08-01T20:18:02Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/180
dc.description.abstract The effect of fat level and antioxidant Origanox on the formation of 2-dodecylcylobutanone (2-DCB) was investigated in fresh irradiated ground beef patties. Patties containing 15% and 25% fat were irradiated by electron beam at 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 kGy. Ground beef patties with 0.08% Origanox were gamma irradiated at 3.0 kGy. Commercially available irradiated ground beef with different fat levels was analyzed in order to estimate dose absorbed by these samples. The 2-DCB was extracted by Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration of 2-DCB increased linearly with dose with no significant difference in 2-DCB concentrations between the two fat levels. The estimated doses applied to the commercial samples ranged between 1.38 kGy and 1.55 kGy. Origanox did not affect the concentration of 2-DCB. Mutagenicity of 2-DCB was evaluated by the Ames assay using five standard Salmonella tester strains with S9 enzyme activation. The Ames assay did not show a mutagenic effect of 2-DCB, including samples incubated with S9. Acute toxicity of 2-DCB was evaluated by the Microtox acute toxicity system and compared with cyclohexanone and 2-nonenal (both GRAS additives). The toxicity of 2-DCB was between that of cyclohexanone and 2-nonenal while the maximum toxic effect elicited by 2-DCB was the least of the three compounds. Metabolism of 2-DCB was investigated in Female Sprague-Dawley rats. Hexane extracts of feces and fat were analyzed by GC-MS. Urine with and without added β-glucuronidase, was monitored for glucuronide complexes by hexane extraction GC-MS. The total amount of 2-DCB recovered in feces was 1.78 ± 0.63 mg over five days, about 3-11% of the total 2-DCB administered. The total amount recovered in fat was 0.08 ± 0.01 mg which was approximately 0.33% of the total 2-DCB administered. No metabolites were recovered in any of the urine extracts. en
dc.description.sponsorship United States Department of Agriculture en
dc.format.extent 754586 bytes
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso en_US en
dc.publisher Kansas State University en
dc.subject alkylcyclobutanones en
dc.subject 2-dodecylcyclobutanone en
dc.subject toxicity en
dc.subject metabolism en
dc.subject irradiation en
dc.subject mass spectrometry en
dc.title Evaluation of toxicity, mutagenicity, metabolism and formation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in irradiated ground beef en
dc.type Dissertation en
dc.description.degree Doctor of Philosophy en
dc.description.level Doctoral en
dc.description.department Department of Animal Sciences and Industry en
dc.description.advisor J. Scott Smith en
dc.subject.umi Agriculture, Food Science and Technology (0359) en
dc.date.published 2006 en
dc.date.graduationmonth August en


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