Chemical warfare agent simulants in Gamble’s fluid: Is the fluid toxic? Can it be made safer by inclusion of solid nanocrystalline metal oxides?

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dc.contributor.author Karote, Dennis
dc.contributor.author Walker, Brandon
dc.contributor.author Dai, Huaien
dc.contributor.author Krishnamoorthi, Ramaswamy
dc.contributor.author Voo, Janis
dc.contributor.author Rajagopalan, Shyamala
dc.date.accessioned 2013-02-28T17:18:37Z
dc.date.available 2013-02-28T17:18:37Z
dc.date.issued 2013-02-28
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/15331
dc.description.abstract The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP), in fluids have been investigated. Data analyses confirm the major degradation pathway to be hydrolysis of 2-CEES to 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, along with minor self-condensation products. Among the three fluids examined, 2-CEES degradation was the fastest in Gamble’s fluid during a 96 h period. Upon addition of Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials (EHAMs) to 2-CEES containing Gamble’s fluid, degradation was generally improved during the first 24 h period. The 96 h outcome was similar for fluid samples with or without EHAM 2 and EHAM 4. EHAM 1-added fluid contained only one degradation product, 2-nitroethyl ethyl sulfide. DFP degradation was the slowest in Gamble’s fluid, but was enhanced by the addition of EHAMs. FTIR and solid state 31P NMR confirm the destructive adsorption of 2-CEES and DFP by the EHAMs. The results collectively demonstrate that 2-CEES and DFP decompose to various extents in Gamble’s fluid over a 96 h period but the fluid still contains a considerable amount of intact simulant. EHAM 1 appears to be promising for 2-CEES and DFP mitigation while EHAM 2 and EHAM 4 work well for early on concentration reduction of 2-CEES and DFP. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.uri http://www.hindawi.com/journals/chem/2013/641620/ en_US
dc.subject Chemical warfare en_US
dc.subject Gamble’s fluid en_US
dc.subject 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide en_US
dc.subject di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate en_US
dc.subject Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials en_US
dc.title Chemical warfare agent simulants in Gamble’s fluid: Is the fluid toxic? Can it be made safer by inclusion of solid nanocrystalline metal oxides? en_US
dc.type Article (publisher version) en_US
dc.date.published 2013 en_US
dc.citation.doi doi:10.1155/2013/641620 en_US
dc.citation.issue 641620 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle Journal of Chemistry en_US
dc.citation.volume 2013 en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid krish en_US


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