The effect of spices on carboxymethyllyinse levels in biscuits

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dc.contributor.author Dunn, Jennifer
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-27T17:36:04Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-27T17:36:04Z
dc.date.issued 2012-11-27
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/15062
dc.description.abstract Carboxymethyllysine (CML) and other advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been shown to affect diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue damage. CML is formed in foods through Maillard browning reactions and through various mechanisms that are affected by time, temperature, pH, water activity, trace metals, and antioxidants. Natural antioxidants can be found in plant and fruit extracts, as well as in spices. The research contained herein is in two parts. The first part includes preliminary work, which examines the percent recovery of CML from various solid phase extraction columns, the analysis of CML in maple syrup, barbeque sauce, honey, and infant formula. The data show that solid phase extraction with a C-18 cartridge produced the highest percent recovery when using a CML standard at 100 ppb, with a recovery of 69%. Furthermore, the analysis of the syrups and sauces is inconclusive, due to the very low levels of CML detected in the infant formula, and the complications due to the high levels of reducing sugars. The second part of the research examines the effect that cinnamon, onion, garlic, black pepper, and rosemary have on CML levels in biscuits. The data show that all of the spices inhibit the formation of CML, at each of the 0.5%, 1%, and 2% levels used in the experiment, by a minimum of 3% in 2% onion samples and a maximum of 79% in 0.5% cinnamon samples when looking at the cumulative data. When looking subsets of the data, the CML inhibition was a minimum of 59% in 2% onion samples and a maximum of 74% in 0.5% cinnamon samples. Other trends can be observed in the chroma values in the CML color data, which suggest that chroma values decrease as the spice level increases, but these are not statistically significant. They may be due to color from the spices themselves, or to the chemical changes in the Maillard reaction. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Kansas State University en
dc.subject Maillard browning, spices, food chemistry, AGEs en_US
dc.subject Spices en_US
dc.subject Food chemistry en_US
dc.subject AGEs en_US
dc.title The effect of spices on carboxymethyllyinse levels in biscuits en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.degree Master of Science en_US
dc.description.level Masters en_US
dc.description.department Food Science Institute en_US
dc.description.advisor J. Scott Smith en_US
dc.subject.umi Agriculture, General (0473) en_US
dc.subject.umi Chemistry, Agricultural (0749) en_US
dc.subject.umi Food Science (0359) en_US
dc.date.published 2012 en_US
dc.date.graduationmonth December en_US


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