The role of house flies in the ecology of enterococci from wastewater treatment facilities.

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dc.contributor.author Doud, Carl W.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-07-05T18:47:49Z
dc.date.available 2011-07-05T18:47:49Z
dc.date.issued 2011-07-05
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/9966
dc.description.abstract Enterococci are a group of commensal bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. They are abundant in human sewage and wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF). This study focused on the role of house flies, Musca domestica, in the ecology of enterococci at WWTF in both field and laboratory experiments. The first study objective focused on sampling and characterizing enterococci from house flies and wastewater sludge from four WWTF in northeastern Kansas. Enterococci were quantified, identified, and screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and genotyped. The profiles of enterococci (spp. diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence) from WWTF sludge and the house flies were similar, indicating that the flies successfully acquired the bacteria from the WWTF substrate. Enterococci with the greatest amount of antibiotic resistant and virulence traits originated from the WWTF that processed meat waste from a commercial sausage plant. Genotyping of E. faecalis revealed clonal matches from sludge and house flies. The second study objective involved tracking the fate of E. faecalis in the digestive tract of house flies in laboratory assays. Colony forming unit (CFU) counts were highest in the midgut at 1 h and declined during the first 24 h. In the labellum, foregut and hindgut, E. faecalis concentrations were more variable but were overall higher after 24 h. Observations from CFU counts and visualizations under a dissecting microscope revealed that E. faecalis peaked in the crop after 48 h suggesting active proliferation in this region. The third objective of the study involved tracking the emergence of calyptrate muscoid flies from stockpiled biosolid cake at one of the four WWTF. Traps were employed at the site for a total of 47 weeks, totaling 386 trap-weeks. A total of 11,349 calyptrate muscoid flies were identified with the two most common species being stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) (9,016, 80.2%) and house flies (2022, 18.0%). Numbers of stable flies and house flies peaked around mid-July each year and a second, smaller peak was observed for stable flies 5-8 weeks later. Estimated annual emergence of stable flies was 551,404 and for house flies 109,188. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship US DoD Deployed War Fighter Protection Fund USDA Multi-state Research Project S1030 en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Kansas State University en
dc.subject House flies en_US
dc.subject Enterococci en_US
dc.subject Wastewater treatment en_US
dc.subject Microbial ecology en_US
dc.subject Antibiotic resistance en_US
dc.subject Stable flies en_US
dc.title The role of house flies in the ecology of enterococci from wastewater treatment facilities. en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US
dc.description.degree Doctor of Philosophy en_US
dc.description.level Doctoral en_US
dc.description.department Department of Entomology en_US
dc.description.advisor Ludek Zurek en_US
dc.subject.umi Ecology (0329) en_US
dc.subject.umi Entomology (0353) en_US
dc.subject.umi Microbiology (0410) en_US
dc.date.published 2011 en_US
dc.date.graduationmonth August en_US

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