Evaluation of different types of fats for use in high-ratio layer cakes

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dc.contributor.author Zhou, Jianmin
dc.date.accessioned 2010-02-09T14:36:31Z
dc.date.available 2010-02-09T14:36:31Z
dc.date.issued 2010-02-09T14:36:31Z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2097/2508
dc.description.abstract Shortening is a major ingredient used in high-ratio layer cakes. Plastic shortenings are most commonly used by the U.S. baking industry, but high levels of trans- or saturated fats cause health concerns. Compared to plastic shortenings, liquid shortenings could significantly reduce the dependence on high melting point fats and the emulsifiers used would enhance the shortening’s functionality. The objective of this research was to compare the influence of different types of fats on the texture and shelf-life of high-ratio layer cakes. Cakes were baked with soybean oil to evaluate the function of three emulsifiers (PGMS, GMS, and Lecithin) on layer cake quality, including volume, cake score, interior visual texture (C-Cell), and firmness (Voland-Stevens). An optimum emulsifier combination was chosen (PGMS 1.8%, GMS 1.0% and Lecithin 0.8%) for addition to the liquid oil. Four groups of layer cakes were baked using: plastic shortening, liquid shortening, liquid oil, or liquid oil plus emulsifier combination. Cake performance and firming over-time were evaluated. The liquid shortening provided the best fresh cake characteristics and cake firmness performance. Liquid oil combined with a combination of added emulsifiers performed very similar in terms of firmness, as did the liquid shortening. This indicated that emulsifiers played an important role on the improvement of cake firmness shelf-life. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Kansas State University en_US
dc.subject Cake en_US
dc.subject High Ratio en_US
dc.subject Fats en_US
dc.subject Emulsifiers en_US
dc.title Evaluation of different types of fats for use in high-ratio layer cakes en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.description.degree Master of Science en_US
dc.description.level Masters en_US
dc.description.department Department of Grain Science and Industry en_US
dc.description.advisor Jon M. Faubion en_US
dc.description.advisor Charles E. Walker en_US
dc.subject.umi Agriculture, Food Science and Technology (0359) en_US
dc.date.published 2010 en_US
dc.date.graduationmonth May en_US


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