Summer cover crops fix nitrogen, increase crop yield and improve soil-crop relationships


Show simple item record Blanco-Canqui, Humberto Claassen, M. M. Presley, DeAnn R. 2012-07-23T19:40:48Z 2012-07-23T19:40:48Z 2012-07-23
dc.description.abstract Impact of cover crops (CCs) on winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) yields is not well understood. We assessed crop yield and its relationships with CC-induced changes in soil properties for a 15-yr CC experiment in wheat-sorghum rotation at 0, 33, 66, and 100 kg ha[superscript]-1 of N application in south central Kansas. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) was used as a winter CC from 1995 to 2000, while sunn hemp (SH; Crotalaria juncea L.) and late-maturing soybean (LMS; Glycine max L.) were used as summer CCs in no-till from 2002 to 2008. Summer CCs increased crop yields particularly at low rates of N application. At 0 kg N ha[superscript]-1, SH increased sorghum yield by 1.18 to 1.54 times, while wheat yield increased by 1.60 times in the first year (2004) after CC establishment relative to non-CC plots. At 66 kg N ha[superscript]-1, SH had no effects on sorghum yield, but it increased wheat yield in three of four years. Cover crops increased near-surface soil total N pool by 270 kg ha[superscript]-1. Crop yield increased with the CC-induced decrease in soil maximum compactibility (soil’s susceptibility to compaction) and soil temperature, and increase in soil aggregate stability, soil organic C (SOC) and total N concentration, and soil water content, particularly at 0 kg N ha-1. Principal component analysis (PCA) selected soil compactibility and total N as the best yield predictors. Inclusion of summer legume CCs in no-till fixes N, increases crop yield and improves soil-crop relationships. en_US
dc.relation.uri en_US
dc.rights Permission to archive granted by the American Society of Agronomy, April 11, 2012. en_US
dc.subject Cover crops en_US
dc.subject Winter wheat en_US
dc.subject Grain sorghum en_US
dc.subject Hairy vetch en_US
dc.subject Sunn hemp en_US
dc.subject Late-maturing soybean en_US
dc.subject Soil-crop relationship en_US
dc.subject Nitrogen fixing en_US
dc.title Summer cover crops fix nitrogen, increase crop yield and improve soil-crop relationships en_US
dc.type Article (author version) en_US 2012 en_US
dc.citation.doi doi:10.2134/agronj2011.0240 en_US
dc.citation.epage 147 en_US
dc.citation.issue 1 en_US
dc.citation.jtitle Agronomy Journal en_US
dc.citation.spage 137 en_US
dc.citation.volume 104 en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid hblanco en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid mclaasse en_US
dc.contributor.authoreid deann en_US

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